We hoped to find predictors of the ability to recognize the signs of dating violence, so that effective prevention programs could be provided to Japanese junior high school students in order to reduce dating violence.In Japan, there have not been any investigations of the factors predicting dating violence among junior high school students.Given the fact that there has been a drastic increase in early dating, and thus early sexual engagement among Japanese adolescents  as well as the detrimental consequences of dating violence on adolescents’ well-being, early prevention of dating violence is a major and urgent challenge for today’s Japanese society.
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As such, for the purpose of this study, we included all three areas of violence given that the consequences of all three forms of violence are significant detrimental factors on adolescents’ development.
In recent years, the WHO has recommended the enhancement of measures to prevent adolescents from becoming a victim of violence/sexual violence by an intimate partner or becoming a perpetrator of such violence after their first sexual experience .
The survey examined gender, recognition of the signs of dating violence, knowledge of dating violence, self-esteem, attitudes toward sexual activity, attitudes toward an equal dating relationship, and relationships with school teachers.
Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of the ability of boys and girls respondents to recognize the signs of physical and psychological dating violence.
Given that younger age is a consistent predictor for experiencing dating violence and that physical and sexual violence by a dating partner is prevalent among high school girls, adolescence is a particularly vulnerable time for dating violence.
In Japan, for instance, 13.6 % female and 4.3 % male adult participants reported being victims of dating violence .A total of 3050 (91.3 %) students participated in this study (1547 boys and 1503 girls).Gender differences were noted with regard to the scores for some of the variables measured.For instance, some researchers include psychological and emotional violent behavior that occur in dating relationships in their definition of dating violence , while others use a more restrictive definition that includes only physical violence .In the recent literature, more contemporary definitions have begun to include physical, sexual, and psychological forms of violence .Furthermore, girls with more knowledge of dating violence had a conservative attitude toward sexual activity, and girls who focused on an equal dating relationship showed greater ability to recognize the signs of dating violence.