Development and Validation of a Questionnaire to Detect Behavior Change in Multiple Advance Care Planning Behaviors. Journal of pain and symptom management, 53(4), 669-681. Unlike closed-ended questions, open-ended questions are more difficult to code since it needs human expertise to determine if one response is equivalent to another.
The type of survey method used as well as the type of response formats are two factors that affect the specific method of data analysis the survey requires.
Basically, standard data analysis includes computing for the proportion of variables and standard errors.
Numerical survey data can be easily handled and analyzed straightforwardly using statistical equations.
On the other hand, ordinal and nominal data need a different way of analyzing survey results.
Data coding simply means converting the nominal and ordinal scale data in such a way that the statistical package to be used can handle the survey data accurately.
This step is actually performed when you design the questionnaire, but the data codes become helpful during data analysis.
After administering the survey, the next step in survey research process is to analyze the responses of the participants.
Handling survey data includes conducting a precise survey data analysis which lets you interpret the results accurately.
M., Schillinger, D., Bibbins-Domingo, K., & Pérez-Stable, E. Journal of general internal medicine, 23(10), 1555.
Identification of limited English proficient patients in clinical care.
The instruments provided here are designed for primary data collection and were selected for applicability to groups the NIH has termed "special populations", under-represented in patient-oriented research. The Network on Socioeconomic Status and Health has enhanced understanding of the mechanisms by which socioeconomic factors affect the health of individuals and their communities. This is the best paper I have seen directly comparing different ways of assessing healthcare discrimination, but it unfortunately doesn’t have a specific conclusion about which is best to use overall.